What is Technology?
Knowledge, knowhow, procedures and system related to the manufactory and use of goods and services that are necessary to solve the economic and social problems of a given society and to improve its living standards. It is embodied in people (person-embodied), things (product-embodied) or processes (process-embodied).
The process of transferring to receivers a technology or method of manufacturing created by others, and practically tested, through capital and intermediary goods or skilled manpower or technical and commercial information. The process of transfer includes direct use, copying or adaption of technologies.
Technology Transfer is the set of processes encompassing all dimensions of the origins and uptake of know-how, experience and equipment amongst, across and within countries, organizations and institutions.
Technical Concerns in Technology Transfer
Core & Country specific technology
Given technology may be decomposed into its two basic components
- The "core technology" which is present independent of the region of technology application, and
- The "country-specific technology" which, owing to differences in culture-related facets, is unique to the country of technology application.
Types of Technology transfer
1. Vertical Technology transfer
A VTT refers to technology being transferred from research to development to production. Thus it follows the progressive stages of invention to innovation. It follows the progressive stage of invention to production
2. Horizontal Technology Transfer
It is an established technology being transferred from one operational environment to another.
- Technology was transferred first from the united states to Japan in the 1950s, technology in the nylon, transistor ,ship building ,steel and chemical industries was aggressively introduced from united states and adopted in Japan.
- From the 1960s on technology was transferred from the United States to Taiwan Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and others via Japan
- Ethiopia should also impart, adopt and use appropriate technology to enhance productivity.
Widely known (Formal) Technology Transfer Mechanisms
1. Import of capital Good
The commercial transfer and acquisition of technology can take place with the Purchase and import of capital goods (with the intention of imitation and reverse engineering)
2. Use of patent documents/Standards
Help to identify and evaluate technology for licensing and technology transfer
3. Joint venture
Hard working together through contributing of resources to retaining the knowledge
It is the sale by all exclusive rights to a patented invention and the purchase of those rights by another person or legal entity.
Is giving the patented technological invention to another entity which is the permission to perform in the country for a limited period of time.
Is a business arrangement whereby the reputation technical information and expertise of one party are combined with the investment of another party for the purpose of selling goods or rendering services directly to the consumer is another means of technology transfer.
7. Exchange of Technical personnel
Technology transfer using technical personnel as the medium transfer of technology through invitation and deployment of technical personnel.
A comprehensive business arrangement to hand over (transfer) the technology to the client i.e. an entire industrial plant or project work that is capable of operating in accordance with agreed performance standards.
Informal Technology Transfer Mechanism:-
- Giving it away (technical journals, conferences, emigration of technical experts, technical assistant programs);
- Industrial intelligence;
- Industrial internship.